Leigh Syndrome

National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.

Important
It is possible that the main title of the report Leigh Syndrome is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report.

Synonyms

  • SNE
  • Leigh necrotizing encephalopathy
  • Leigh's disease
  • necrotizing encephalomyelopathy of Leigh's
  • subacute necrotizing encephalopathy
  • classical Leigh syndrome

Disorder Subdivisions

  • adult-onset subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy
  • infantile necrotizing encephalopathy
  • X-linked infantile nectrotizing encephalopathy

General Discussion

Leigh syndrome is a rare genetic neurometabolic disorder. It is characterized by the degeneration of the central nervous system (i.e., brain, spinal cord, and optic nerve). The symptoms of Leigh syndrome usually begin between the ages of three months and two years. Symptoms are associated with progressive neurological deterioration and may include loss of previously acquired motor skills, loss of appetite, vomiting, irritability, and/or seizure activity. As Leigh syndrome progresses, symptoms may also include generalized weakness, lack of muscle tone (hypotonia), and episodes of lactic acidosis, which may lead to impairment of respiratory and kidney function.

Several different genetically determined enzyme defects can cause the syndrome, initially described over 60 years ago. Most individuals with Leigh syndrome have defects of mitochondrial energy production, such as deficiency of an enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex or the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. In most cases, Leigh syndrome is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. However, X-linked recessive and mitochondrial inheritance are additional modes of transmission.

Resources

CLIMB (Children Living with Inherited Metabolic Diseases)
Climb Building
176 Nantwich Road
Crewe, CW2 6BG
United Kingdom
Tel: 4408452412173
Fax: 4408452412174
Email: enquiries@climb.org.uk
Internet: http://www.CLIMB.org.uk

March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation
1275 Mamaroneck Avenue
White Plains, NY 10605
Tel: (914)997-4488
Fax: (914)997-4763
Tel: (888)663-4637
Email: Askus@marchofdimes.com
Internet: http://www.marchofdimes.com

The Arc
1825 K Street NW, Suite 1200
Washington, DC 20006
Tel: (202)534-3700
Fax: (202)534-3731
Tel: (800)433-5255
TDD: (817)277-0553
Email: info@thearc.org
Internet: http://www.thearc.org

United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation
8085 Saltsburg Road Suite 201
Pittsburgh, PA 15239
United States
Tel: (412)793-8077
Fax: (412)793-6477
Tel: (888)317-8633
Email: info@umdf.org
Internet: http://www.umdf.org

Lactic Acidosis Support Trust
1A Whitley Close
Middlewich
Cheshire, CW10 0NQ
United Kingdom
Tel: 0160683719
Fax: 01606837198

Children's Brain Diseases Foundation
350 Parnassus Avenue
Suite 900
San Francisco, CA 94117
USA
Tel: (415)665-3003
Fax: (415)665-3003
Email: jrider6022@aol.com

NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
P.O. Box 5801
Bethesda, MD 20824
Tel: (301)496-5751
Fax: (301)402-2186
Tel: (800)352-9424
TDD: (301)468-5981
Internet: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/

Genetic and Rare Diseases (GARD) Information Center
PO Box 8126
Gaithersburg, MD 20898-8126
Tel: (301)251-4925
Fax: (301)251-4911
Tel: (888)205-2311
TDD: (888)205-3223
Internet: http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/GARD/

Madisons Foundation
PO Box 241956
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Tel: (310)264-0826
Fax: (310)264-4766
Email: getinfo@madisonsfoundation.org
Internet: http://www.madisonsfoundation.org

MitoAction
14 Pembroke Street
Medford, MA 02155
Tel: (888)648-6228
Fax: (888)648-6228
Email: info@mitoaction.org
Internet: http://www.MitoAction.org

For a Complete Report

This is an abstract of a report from the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD). A copy of the complete report can be downloaded free from the NORD website for registered users. The complete report contains additional information including symptoms, causes, affected population, related disorders, standard and investigational therapies (if available), and references from medical literature. For a full-text version of this topic, go to www.rarediseases.org and click on Rare Disease Database under "Rare Disease Information".

The information provided in this report is not intended for diagnostic purposes. It is provided for informational purposes only. NORD recommends that affected individuals seek the advice or counsel of their own personal physicians.

It is possible that the title of this topic is not the name you selected. Please check the Synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and Disorder Subdivision(s) covered by this report

This disease entry is based upon medical information available through the date at the end of the topic. Since NORD's resources are limited, it is not possible to keep every entry in the Rare Disease Database completely current and accurate. Please check with the agencies listed in the Resources section for the most current information about this disorder.

For additional information and assistance about rare disorders, please contact the National Organization for Rare Disorders at P.O. Box 1968, Danbury, CT 06813-1968; phone (203) 744-0100; web site www.rarediseases.org or email orphan@rarediseases.org

Last Updated:  3/20/2013
Copyright  1987, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1998, 1999, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012, 2013 National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.

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